Deadly Nightshade

May 27, 2009 at 4:51 pm (Aesthetics, Botany, Drugs, Health and Medicine, Murder, Mythology, Poison, The Ancient World, The Occult) (, , , , , , , , , , , , , )

 

Deadly nightshade, alternatively known as belladonna, is an herbaceous plant found in North America, Europe, and Asia. A delicate-looking, beautiful plant with a legendary potency, its role in history has stemmed primarily from the effects of chemicals naturally occurring in the plant, which include the hallucinogenic toxin scopolamine. It is also from the berries of deadly nightshade that the drug atropine, included on the World Health Organizations Essential Drugs list, is derived.

Deadly nightshade was dubbed Atropa belladonna by Carl Linnaeus, the father of binomial nomenclature, in his 1753 book Species Planatarum.

Deadly nightshade was dubbed “Atropa belladonna” by Carl Linnaeus, the father of binomial nomenclature, in his 1753 book Species Planatarum.

The plant’s genus, Atropa, comes from the name of the Greek Fate Atropos, who was believed to wield scissors that could cut short the thread of human life. This is a reference to the severe toxicity of the plant’s berries, a handful of which, if eaten, can plunge an adult into a nightmare of confused convulsions and hallucinations, followed by a torturous death. Extract from the plant has, according to legend, been used as a poison since ancient times. Macbeth, King of Scots from 1040 – 1057, was rumored to use atropine as a sedative and poison to surreptitiously best his foes. There have also been reports of deadly nightshade being employed by torturers, who used it to disorient and weaken their unfortunate subject.

The three Moirai, or Fates, of Greek mythology. Atropos is pictured in the center holding her “abhorred shears”.

The three Moirai, or Fates, of Greek mythology. Atropos is pictured in the center holding her “abhorred shears”.

The toxic nature of the chemicals contained in deadly nightshade is such that, in small doses, parts of the plant have been historically used recreationally and spiritually to induce hallucinations, perhaps most notable by European witches and shamans in their notorious “flying ointments”. The chemicals scopolamine and atropine can, according to shamanistic lore, create the sensation of physical flight (along with a host of other hallucinations and delusions) when ingested orally or applied to the skin in ointment form. A tincture of deadly nightshade was also purportedly drunk by ancient Greeks who visited the legendary Oracle of Delphi, in order to induce prophetic visions.

An ancient depiction of the Oracle of Delphi giving a mystical consultation.

An ancient depiction of the Oracle of Delphi giving a mystical consultation.

The history of deadly nightshafe, one concerned both with death and with a heightened experience of life, speaks to the dichotomous nature of this powerful plant. Even its two most common names, deadly nightshade and belladonna, associate the plant first with death and darkness, and second with feminine beauty. Perhaps these contrasting interpretations are not separated by an unbridgeable gap, but are rather two poles of one notion. It could be that the seductive nature of this plant, which can cause spiritual visions, is amplified by its potentially fatal potency. This combination of erotic and thanatopic qualities is reminiscent, appropriately enough, of the Greek Fates themselves – three women who determine the course of mortal life through enchanting song, weave the course of events into an unchangeable fabric, and finally cut the life thread short.

Some Further Reading:

Botanical.com’s entry on Deadly Nightshade

An inquiry into flying ointments

Erowid.org’s page devoted to Belladonna

Drugs.com’s entry dedicated to atropine

A large collection of information regarding the Moirai (Greek Fates)

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7 Comments

  1. Anne said,

    Just so you know, your first photo is of woody nightshade, not deadly nightshade. The plant in the illustration is the correct one.

    • anticholinergic boy said,

      Not only is the first picture wrong but the content is misleading and full of inaccuracies.

    • irrationalgeographic said,

      Thank you. I have corrected the image.

  2. benji said,

    Agreed. The first photo is woody nightshade or bittersweet nightshade. Solanum dulcamara. It is much less poisonous than deadly nightshade. The photo should be taken down because unfortunately it’s the first one that comes up when google image searching deadly nightshade.

    • irrationalgeographic said,

      I just saw this comment and realized my mistake. I replaced the inaccurate photo with a new one. Thanks.

  3. irrationalgeographic said,

    Full of inaccuracies? Perhaps. My writing is that of an amateur exploring subjects with which I’m often unacquainted. I perform my research as diligently as possible, but inevitably let a false fact or two fall through the cracks. And misleading? Certainly not intentionally. But again, I’m just a curious individual pursuing his interests.

    And, regarding the primary photo depicting woody, not deadly, nightshade, thank you all for the advice. I have changed the photograph, which now (hopefully) depicts deadly nightshade accurately. The fact that an image from Irrational Geographic shows up first on a Google image search is beyond me. My work should not be the first thing any searcher encounters, since I merely comment on subjects that interest me, and do not present any original research or information.

  4. Jessica said,

    I’m just glad that was pointed out. We found it growing in apartment garden area today and needed to identify the plant. My 3 year old is good about not putting things in her mouth and is supervised at all times but others might not be so lucky.

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